101 Kaizen Templates: Daily Hansei Sheet (Pluses & Deltas)

Last year Ron Pereira wrote an article titled “How not to screw up pluses and deltas” that gave useful tips on how to properly review at the end of a day of class room training or a shop floor kaizen. The pluses and deltas activity is a great example of hansei in action, reflecting on what went well (pluses) and what you would like to do better (deltas).

Typically we write down a plus sign and a triangle which is the Greek letter delta (and scientific notation for “change”) in two vertical columns on a flip chart or white board. Everyone is asked to give input first on the deltas and then the hasei session is ended on a positive note by identifying a few pluses. Here are some tips:
1. Write down the deltas first, asking people to suggest things they would like to change about the next day or the next time this class is held.

Encourage them to think of changes within the power of the students, the instructor or the sponsoring management to make before the next day or next session.

2. Ask for things that were positive and that people would like to se more of in the next session.

Make it clear whether the class can expect more of the same pluses tomorrow or not. For example if the positive for today was a hands-on activity but the agenda for tomorrow has no hands-on activity, communicate this by explaining what is on the agenda and what you think the class will enjoy about it.

3. Identify what will be changed from the list and write it down.

Even if it is only one thing, make the change.

This template can be used to document and record the pluses and deltas from each day by copying what was written down on the flip chart of white board. It can be used very effectively also as a personal daily hansei sheet, or for a debrief sheet after sales meetings, interviews or other opportunities to make positive changes.

Reflecting together on the pluses and deltas each day empowers your students or your kaizen team to make changes to the class or workshop itself. When they see these changes reflected in how the class or workshop is run the next day they will take greater ownership of the process, learning and achieving more. Doing this sort of hansei each day, you will find that you are more effective as a teacher or leader and that your student or team members are more engaged.

Be sure to check out Ron’s newly redesigned Lean Six Sigma Academy website featuring more free information than ever before, including an e-book and a video demonstrating differences between batching and one piece flow. I have it from a reliable source that more exciting changes are coming to Ron’s blog so check back often or subscribe to his RSS feed.


  1. Gary Petersen

    February 23, 2008 - 12:25 pm

    Thank you for posting these templates on your weblog. I’m grateful for the reference material. Would it be possible for you to create a static page here where you could list all of them, as they’re posted? It would be helpful to have them listed in one place.

  2. Jon Miller

    February 25, 2008 - 3:04 am

    That’s a good suggestion Gary. We’ll get to work on it and make an announcement when it’s done.

  3. Chris Nicholls

    February 26, 2008 - 1:05 am

    Hi Jon
    Thanks for an inspiring post I wish I could discipline myself to carry out systematic daily reflection. Its not all bad news here however. I think we have a similar idea to your “Pluses & Deltas” (Were did that expression come from ?). For systematic feedback after a kaizen case study presentation in our factory we have what we call + & ++ Feedback from everyone. + Feedback are areas of best practice (or the bits that where really good). ++ Feedback are areas for improvement ( or what we could do better or improve upon further). All this +&++ feedback is collected and displayed with the Kaizen Sheet and used as both a learning and a recognition tool.
    Keep the Templates coming I find them very useful and I also like Gary’s idea of a list or index of them for easy future reference.
    Best wishes

  4. Jon Miller

    February 26, 2008 - 9:39 am

    Hi Chris,
    Systematic daily *anything* is difficult. The “pluses and deltas” term is not our invention. I don’t know who invented them. It’s one of those facilitation and training things that has been around.

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