A Newsweek article titled ‘Know What You Don’t Know’ interviews Cisco Systems CEO John Chambers and plumbs his insights into the futre of leadership. One passage caught my eye in paticular:
You came out of law school and a general business background. Now you’re leading people with highly technical backgrounds. Is that a different leadership challenge than in leading journalists, or artists, or salespeople?
Yes. Engineers are part business leaders, part artists, and you’ve got to know which hat they have on. However, there’s a fundamental change that may be really important to the future of business in this country and the world. At Cisco, we are moving to collaboration teams, groups coming together that represent sales, engineering, finance, legal, etc. And we’re training leaders to think across silos. We now do that with 70 different teams in the company. So we’ll have a sales leader go run engineering. A lawyer go run business development. A business development leader go run our consumer operations. We’re going to train a generalist group of leaders who know how to learn and operate in collaboration teamwork. I think that’s the future of leadership.
Cross-functional teams. Generalists. Learning organization. Collaborative teamwork. Great ideas, but hardly the future of leadership. These ideas are straight out of MBA cases studies of Japanese business practices of the past half-century. This is not to say that all Japanese companies practice these ideas well, or in some cases even at all. The organization into teams, cross-functional collaboration and the development of generalist leaders by rotating them through various departments and roles to acquire company-specific knowledge are well-documented classic approaches that deserves more attention, and it is encouraging to see Cisco Systems taking them up.
The challenge for Cisco to copy these ideas will be to first understand how these practices can be adopted outside of Japan’s specific national, cultural and business environment. For example the development of generalist leaders assumes success in retaining people long enough to take them through multiple rotations of 2-3 years in various management roles, moving from engineering to sales to purchasing for example, often with only slight promotions if at all. Senior executives in major US corporations remain at the same company an average of 4-5 years, and senior managers slightly longer. The Western expectation of promotion ever 2-3 years, climbing the corporate ladder vertically, rather than exploring other silos is another challenge. Western firms often hire specialist managers or technical leaders from outside of the company with limited or company-specific knowledge, in comparison to Japanese companies who value stability and harmony and promote from within. The shock of new blood to an organization can be positive or negative, just as Japanese firms who resist new blood can grow sluggish and myopic. The understanding of these and other factor will determine the long-term success or failure of John Chambers’ plans for leadership development at Cisco.
I am curious as to how Cisco Systems is “training leaders to think across silos”. The real solution should be to “train leaders who remove silos” and connect people in customer-focused processes. No doubt a certain amount of this is happening at Cisco through their efforts to implement lean thinking and lean systems. The question though is whether “the future of leadership” is really to create leaders who simply think across silos without challenging the need for them to exist, or whether the future is to develop leaders who envision and build a totally new way of organizing, collaborating and enabling customer-focused innovation. This is much harder of course, and the typical CEO tenure may not allow the continuity for Cisco to accomplish this.
Creating leaders who truly think and act across silos requires addressing the cultural root causes of silo thinking. This goes deeper than simply changing the lines of reporting, team structure and definition of silos. Those are just artefacts. What enables or prevents silo thinking is a combination of how people are measured, incentivized, how responsibilities and accountability is assigned, and how the role of leadership is understood. It is useful to understand the origin of the modern silo-based functional organization chart. In The Leader’s Handbook by Peter R Scholtes there is a story of the tragic Western Railorad passenger train collision in 1841. The modern organization chart did not exist within industries at this time, and as a result of this accident and the need to answer the questions such as “who did not do their jobs correctly?” and “who is to blame?” this Prussian military-style organization chart was born and soon widely adopted.
So early in the age of railroads, with cottage industries transitioning to steam-powered industry, it is not hard to understand this desire by leaders of industry to create a “mechanical” organization structure with clear functional responsibilities and quick assignment of blame. Unfortunately even today, long after we have heard the truth in Dr. Deming’s words that assignment of blame never addresses the multiple systemic root causes of a problem, the silo-based organization chart persists. While processes, standards and controls are vital to the running of any organization there is a limit to the effectiveness and scalability of command and control. What then is the future of leadership?
In order to answer this question we need to clearly define the problem of today’s leadership. The problem may be different for each organization. The root causes of these problems are ultimately systemic, requiring us to examine mindsets and behaviors and not only the superficial structural factors. The countermeasures may be specific to each organization within their context and culture, even if the root causes are the same. For example a family-owned business that is run as a tribal organization with strongman leadership should not envision a leadership future that leaps immediately to the vision described by the Cisco CEO. There is a need to evolve in stages, even passing through the silo-organization chart phase for a time. Likewise a mature, modern multi-national organization may need to work on leadership skills development, structural modifications to the power structure, negotiate with local or national labor organization or take other steps, or otherwise shake loose the status quo.
Defining the problem may in fact be the trickiest part of organization redesign and envisioning the future of leadership. Simply copying best practice models that seem to be working elsewhere, or with which the CEO has experienced prior success, may be necessary but not sufficient. The Cisco CEO interview referred to a 5-year product planning process and a similar process is needed for organizational development.
Customer-focused, strategic questions to ask may include:
What does a leader lead? This may seem like a simple trade off in horizontal versus vertical, value stream versus silo, systems thinking versus local optimization, but form must follow function and we should not be dogmatic and insist on either-or. The organization serves the customer and the leader serves the organization.
Where should a leader lead? The lean hypothesis is that leaders are more effective when they have access to good information more quickly, when two-way communication happens and when leaders are visible in their support for the organization. The “go see for yourself” principle of lean leadership is challenging but essential for multi-national organizations.
How should a leader lead? This is the fundamental choice that the Cisco CEO hints at, of the leader being a technical specialist, artist or hero-manager or a generalist, team builder and teacher. Because the majority of leaders and success paths today are skewed towards the former, many organizations need to at least consider the merits of the latter model.
When in doubt, the vision of the future of leadership should be biased towards “simple, local, direct”, unless the customer insists on pay for something else. This is by no means an exhaustive consideration for this important topic and I encourage the readers to build on the discussion.